What is Gastroenterology ?

Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which include the organs from mouth into anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this speciality. Gastroenterologists perform a number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including colonoscopy, endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound and liver biopsy.
Hepatology, or hepatobiliary medicine, encompasses the study of the liver, pancreas, and biliary tree, while proctology encompasses the fields of anus and rectum diseases. They are traditionally considered sub-specialties of gastroenterology.

Gastroenterologists commonly diagnose conditions using an endoscopy or colonoscopy. These procedures use thin, flexible tubing with a microscopic camera on the end to give your doctor a visual map of what’s happening inside your digestive system. Some procedures, including gastrointestinal surgery, may need to be performed under general anaesthetic.

What is Endoscopy ?

It is a procedure that enables your doctor to look inside your oesophagus, stomach and small intestine. It usually takes 10 to 20 minutes. A tube with a microscopic camera on the end is inserted down your oesophagus. This will not affect your breathing. Your throat may be numbed, or you'll be given a sedative or light anaesthetic.

What is Colonoscopy ?

It is a procedure that enables your doctor to look inside your rectum and colon (large intestine and large bowel). It usually takes 20 to 40 minutes. A tube with a microscopic camera on the end (called a colonoscope) is inserted via the anus. If appropriate, you'll be given a sedative or light anaesthetic.


Diagnostic endoscopic procedures

  • Colonoscopy
  • Enteroscopy
  • Interventional endoscopic procedures
  • Polypectomy
  • Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)
  • UGI Endoscopy
  • UGI Endoscopy with Biopsy
  • Variceal Banding Oesophageal (EVL)
  • Jaundice –obstructive jaundice, viral hepatitis and biliary stone disease.
  • Ulcers – Peptic ulcers, Gastric ulcers , Esophageal ulcers



  • Cancers of the oesophagus
  • Corrosive injuries/ strictures of oesophagus
  • Oesophageal perforations
  • Peristaltic Disorders of oesophagus (Achalasia cardia)

  • Carcinoma of the stomach
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours of stomach
  • Complicated duodenal ulcer disease
  • Hepatobiliary & Pancreas
  • Liver tumours (Primary/ secondaries)
  • Hydatid cysts, liver /spleen/any other organ (intra-abdominal)
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Carcinoma of gall bladder
  • Complicated gallstone disease (Cholecysto/Choledochal duodenal Fistula)
  • Choledochal cysts
  • Biliary stricture/ biliary fistulae
  • Post cholecystectomy biliary injuries
  • Carcinoma of the head of pancreas
  • Surgery in Acute pancreatitis (Necrotising pancreatitis)
  • Chronic pancreatitis
  • Cystic tumours of pancreas
  • Surgery for Portal hypertension
  • Surgical obstructive jaundice
  • Small Intestine
  • Small bowel tumours
  • Crohns disease
  • Colon, Rectum & Anal canal
  • Colonic cancers
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Rectal carcinoma
  • Anal canal cancers
  • Colonic polyposis
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